Cultural Anthropology     (Anth105)

Quick Access to Topics

 Core Competancies
 Student Conduct Code
 Classroom Behavior
 Grading/Course Requirements
 Television Course Requirements
 Testing Policy
 Interveiw & Other Papers

Course Description:


Anthropology is the study of human beings, in all places in the world, for all periods of human existence, and forall aspects of peoples’ experiences.  There are four major subdivisions of anthropology.  Although cultural anthropology will be emphasized in this course, an awareness will exist concerning physical or biological anthropology, archaeology, and anthropological linguistics.  More recently, applied anthropologists attempt to utilize anthropological knowledge in each of these subdivisions to achieve practical goals.


Studying anthropology may help people be more tolerant.  Customs or behavior that appear improper or offensive to us may be other people’s adaptations to particular environmental and social conditions.  Anthropology is also valuable in providing knowledge of our past.  This provides us with knowledge of our achievements and a confidence to solve future problems.

Professors:                 Doug Coil                   (732) 224-2025  



                                    Barbara Jones            (732) 224-2387  


Learning Assistant:   Leila Wollman            (732) 224-2538

Text:   Ferraro, Gary.  Cultural Anthropology:  An Applied Perspective, 4th Ed. (Belmont,CA:  Wadsworth Publishing Co., 2001.


Core Competencies:



1          Students will develop and enhance the skills that allow them to think critically and communicate in a clear, concise manner.

1.1       Communicate information and ideas clearly and effectively in written form.

1.6       Demonstrate effective reading skills.



2          Students will use critical thinking and problem solving skills in analyzing information.

2.2       Create or develop hypotheses, for A level work

2.3       Recognize and construct logical forms of argumentation, for A level work.



Students will:

3          Students will develop a historical perspective in order to understand the world.

3.1       Recognize the historical and political development of civilization

3.2       Understand the influence and impact of historical and political events, ideas, and cultures.



6          Students will understand human behavior within a larger societal context.

6.1              Understand moral and ethical principles

6.2              Understand the importance of taking responsibility for one’s behavior.

6.4       Think critically about controversial societal issues

6.5       Understand the relationship between the individual and society.



7          Students will process information including defining, accessing, organizing, evaluating and presenting information

7.1       Recognize a need for information

7.2              Conduct and complete effective research

            7.3       Assess, use, document and present information objectively and effectively



10        Students will show how commonalties and differences in values, perspectives and behaviors of diverse people affect them and peoples from different nations and cultures, particularly people in contemporary American society.

10.2          Appreciate diverse cultures and their languages.

10.3          Link geography and regions of the world with various cultures

10.4          Understand the differences and commonalties in people’s backgrounds and their impact on American society.

10.5          Analyze the causes and consequences of their own and others’ prejudicial attitudes and discriminatory actions.


Evaluation of Core Competencies:

The preceding Core Competencies are evaluated through tests, an essay evaluation of an interview, and analysis of an ethnography.


Student Conduct Code:

The By-law’s of the Board of Trustees, Section 1.3034(m) authorizes a Student Conduct Code (College Regulation 6.3000R).  You should be aware that the Standards of Contact specifically prohibit cheating or plagiarism in connection with an academic program.  The enforcement procedures regarding the Student Conduct Code are fully explained in the student handbook.  Any questions concerning this should be directed either to your Student Development Specialist or the Director of Student Life and Activities.


If you have a documented disability and would like to request accommodations and/or academic adjustments, contact the Disability Services Office at (732)-224-2730 or TTY (732)-842-4211.



Attendance is expected and contributes significantly to performance in this course.  Three absences or more will seriously affect a student’s ability to succeed in this course.


Classroom Behavior:

All students will be expected to demonstrate the following:

·        Arrive for class on time

·        Attend the entire class session

·        Participate in class discussions/activities

·        Deactivate all cell phones and pagers

·        Return from breaks on time

·        Refrain from personal conversations

·        Respect the opinions of class members

·        Submit assignments on time

·        Attend all scheduled classes



Grading Criteria/Course Requirements

Grades through the B Level will be determined through tests and an interview evaluation.  A grade of an A will require submission of an ethnography project, as well as satisfying B level grades on evaluations.  All students will be evaluated on Chapters 1, 2, 7, 8, 9/10, and 14, and submit an interview essay.  Additional chapters will be assigned and/or integrated within the course, i.e. Gender - Chapter 11. Evaluations may also exist for these chapters.  Film reviews, Internet assignments, and additional readings may be included as part of the evaluation process at the discretion of the instructor.


Anth105 Television Course Requirements:

This is the distance learning version of Cultural Anthropology.  There will be 4 unit tests for the TV section.  Conducting an interview will not be required. For grading see below.  The units will include the following Chapters:

·        Unit 1 Test - Chapters 1 and 2

·        Unit 2 Test - Chapters 7 and 8

·        Unit 3 Test – Chapters 9, 10, and 11

·        Unit 4 Test – Chapters 14 and 15

A grade -        Submission of an essay based on an approved ethnography and

                         B level attained on evaluations  (an average of 80 on all evaluations)

B grade:          Average scores 80 and above on evaluations

C grade:          Average scores 70-79 on evaluations

F grade:          Average scores 59 and below


Computing Averages:

Your grade will be based on whichever of the two methods used in averaging is to the student’s advantage.  I will average all grades as follows:

1.      Total scores by total evaluations                        OR

2.      Total points divided by total evaluations.  See below.  Points averaging .5 and above will be assigned the next higher grade.

B =      3 points

C=       2 points

D=       1 point

F =       0 points


Testing Policy:

Exams will be given in class.  Typically you will have at least two weeks notice for an exam.  There will be no makeup tests for unsatisfactory grades.  Missed exams may be taken in the Testing Center or with Leila Wollman, the Learning Assistant for Anthropology.


Interview and Other Assigned Papers
1        All papers submitted must be keyboarded.
2        All papers must have the following information in the top right or left hand corner: 

·        Your name

·        Section number

·        Day/time of class (am/pm)

·        Assignment

·        Last 4 Social Security digits

3        All papers must be keyboarded, spell checked, and read over for grammatical form.

4        All papers must be submitted before or by due dates.

5        Length of papers should be in the 2-3 page range.

6        If your instructor asks you to make corrections or additions to your work, hand in the original with the changes

7        Speak with your instructor, make an appointment to discuss and express your questions. It is easier and more effective to make an appointment than to just look for an instructor and expect to find them.


(Due after Chapter 9/10 assigned – around midpoint of course.  Instructor will indicate due date.)


For this objective you will utilize the unstructured interview. (see page 92 in your text book and your instructor’s assistance). Here you will choose a person to interview on any one of the topics found below. This person should be from a different culture or co-culture than you. Perhaps the most important thing in a successful interview is to choose a person that talks and one that talks to you. In anthropology the interview is used to give the anthropologist a glimpse into how a particular culture perceives and does things. Anthropologists refer to the person that they are interviewing as informants. Try to think of the person in this manner. Help them to inform on the cultural information you choose.


The person you choose is special, since the informant describes how the cultural information applies in their world.  The informant must have special characteristics.

·        Are they willing to talk about the concept?

·        Are they willing to talk to you about the concept?

·        Do they have something to say about the concept?

Now that you have chosen a person, your informant, to interview, you need to do the following:

·        Assure them that their personal identity will not be revealed.

·        Because they are an informant, they are informing on whatever cultural identity they hold.  You must determine this identity.

·        Describe the informant culturally.

·        How old are they?

·        Are they male/female?

·        What do they do (occupation)?

·        Married, divorced, single, children, only child

·        Economic position

·        Educational level

·        Sexual orientation

·        Languages they speak

·        Retired

·        Hobbies

·        Just what makes this person who they are?

·        Only you can decide what is important to the cultural makeup of this perosn and you must obtain this information from your informant.

·        Explain to your informant in very specific terms just what concept you are interested in having them discuss.

·        For example – Topic #1 – What endogamous/exogamous criteria are important in the selection of a marriage partner?  This means?  How do you see it?

·        Remember that these concepts may be foreign and complex.  You will need to take time to explain the concept carefully, otherwise the informant cannot reveal themselves culturally.


·        Anthropology does an ‘open format’ interview, which means once you explain the concept to your informant, the informant decides how the concept applies to them.  Open format means that you do not supply possible answers to the concept.  After you explain the concept you ask, ‘how do you see it?’

·        Take notes on what your informant says.  Listen to them.  They are the focus of your interview.

·        Now that you have notes and have done the actual interview, you must convey the information you have elicited to the reader.  Just what did that informant have to say about the concept you explained to them?  Do you now know how they see it?  Did you choose the right person?  Would you choose them again to inform on another concept?

·        Write a brief synopsis of the interview trying to convey the major points your informant gave to you.

Limit yourself to 3 pages.


Interview Topics (Concepts)

1                    Determine how a person chooses a marriage partner.  What endogamous/exogamous criteria are important?

2                    Select some one older than you.  Describe how they have seen marriage and the family change in their lifetime. The following issues might be discussed: child raising, roles, work, perceptions, neighborhoods, and expectations.

3          Select a retired person.  How has retirement affected their family status? How did they see retirement twenty years ago, 10 years ago, now? Are there special considerations that retired people have in relationship to their families, grandchildren, housing?

4          Choose a divorced person with children. What special considerations are involved with financial, social, work, dating situations.

For each of these topics, include how the informant’s perceptions are similar and/or different than the norms of the culture.



An A grade project involves the most complex levels of learning. The student is asked to simultaneously identify, compare, and analyze cultural concepts. Analyze is the key word. Analyze means to discuss and evaluate how different concepts are related to each other.  You should wait until at least 2/3 of the semester is over before you approach you instructor on this Project.  You need to have read Chapters 1, 2, 7-10, 11 and 14 to be able to complete this project.


For an A grade there is a single project that is submitted the last third of the course. Instructors will assign a date.  It is a written paper that is between 5-8 pages in length,12 font, double spaced, 1.5 margins.



1                    pass evaluations at the B level

2          participate in and attend class

3          discuss project with instructor before starting


Select from any of the available ethnographies on reserve in the Library. Go to the reserve desk on the second floor of the Library or view the list on the web at the following address:

Keyboard Anth 105 and click on search or Enter.  A space exists between Anth and 105.


Choose an ethnography.  After reading the ethnography, select any 2 of the 5 concepts listed below and demonstrate how they are integrated.  Don’t forget specific examples. This means defining, from your text, each concept you use and giving examples from the ethnography of each concept.

1                    Patterns of subsistence - What kind of food acquisition techniques do they utilize?

2                    Economic systems - What types of economic systems are utilized?

3          Marriage/family/kinship - What types of Marriage/family/kinship are utilized?

4          Gender - How do they divide the culture by gender?  What gender ideology and gender stratification is used?

5          Religion and belief studies - What level of religious belief do they utilize? How do they use religion for social and psychological functions?


Videos:           Available for viewing on the first floor of the Library.


Faces Of Culture Videos for Anth105 TV

1          The Nature Of Anthropology                            VT4598

2          The Nature Of Culture                          VT4598

3          How Cultures Are Studied                                VT4599

4          Language and Communication               VT4599

5          Psychological Anthropology                              VT4600

6          Alejandro Mamani (Case Study)                       VT4600

7          Patterns of Subsistence – Food Foragers          VT4601

8          Patterns of Subsistence – Food Producers        VT4601

9          Economic Anthropology                                   VT4602

10        The Highland Maya                                          VT4602

11        Sex & Marriage                                                VT4603

12        Family & Household                                         VT4603

13        The Yucatee Maya                                           VT4604

14        Kinship & Descent, Part 1                                VT4604

15        Kinship & Descent, Part 2                                VT4605

16        Age, Common Interest & Stratification  VT4605

17        The Aymara                                                     VT4606

18        Political Organization                                        VT4606

19        Social Control                                                  VT4607

20        Religion and Magic                                           VT4607

21        Asmat Of New Guinea                         VT4608

22        The Arts                                                           VT4608

23        New Orleans’ Black Indians                             VT4609

24        Culture Change                                     VT4609

25        Cricket & Trobriand Way                                 VT4610

26        The Future Of Humanity                                   VT4610


These videos will also be broadcast on Monmouth Cablevision (Channel 34) and Comcast (Channel 21) each Fall, Spring, and Summer 2 term.  Call Telecommunication Technologies at (732) 224- 2180 for the schedule or the schedule is available on Brookdale’s Department Distance Learning Webpage at




Chapter 1



Learning Objectives


After reading and studying Chapter 1, you will be able to:


1.        Comprehend the breath of the study of anthropology and understand its interest in global diversity.


2.        Describe the four field approach to anthropology.


3.        Identify four broad areas of interest to physical anthropologists.


4.        Understand why archaelogists analayze material remains of historical and prehistoric cultures.


5.  Describe the four branches of linguistic anthropology.


6.  Explain the difference between ethnography and ethnology.


7.      Understand what holism means in anthropology.


8.      List four contributions of the holistic, cross-cultural perspective of anthropology to the scientific understanding of humanity.


9.      Understand the difference between basic and applied research in anthropology.


10.  Present a clear explanation of cultural relativism and its importance to anthropology


11.  Give several examples of their own and others’ ethnocentricity





anthropological linguistics                      ethnocentrism                           human paleontology

archaeology                                          ethnography                              paleoanthropology

artifacts                                                ethnolinguistics              paleopathology

cultural anthropology                             ethnology                                  physical anthropology  

cultural relativism                                  features                                    population biology

descriptive linguistics                             genetics                                    primatology

ecofacts                                                historical linguistics                    race

epidemiology                                        holism                                       sociolinguistics



Chapter 2



Learning Objectives


After reading and studying Chapter 2, you will be able to:


1.      Give a clear definition of the anthropological concept of culture and recognize what is includes in this concept


2.      Explain the significance of the shared nature of culture.


3.      Define culture shock and explain when it is likely to be experienced.


4.      State four reasons why different members of a society have distinct understandings of their culture.


5.      Explain the importance of learning for culture acquisition and the lesser significance of instinctive behavior for humans.


6.      Give several examples of how humans do things because of what they have learned from their culture.


7.      Explain how culture can affect our physical bodies and biological processes.


8.      Understand that cultures are constantly changing and give examples of cultural innovation and diffusion.


9.      Understand why anthropologists are interested in the similarities as well as the differences among human cultures.


10.  Understand what cultural universals are and be able to give several examples of such universals.


11.  Describe how, for all human societies, culture is an important form of adaptation to environment.


12.  Explain what it means to say culture is integrated and what that implies about the process of culture change.




adaptive nature of culture                                  ethnocentrism                           sub-cultures

cultural diffusion                                                innovations

cultural universals                                              organic analogy

culture shock                                                    pluralistic society

enculturation                                                     small-scale society




Chapter 3



Learning Objectives


After reading and studying Chapter 3, you will be able to:


1.       Distinguish between applied and pure anthropology.


2.       Understand where most applied research is conducted.


3.       Describe the variety of specialized roles through which applied anthropologists work.


4.       Discuss the significance of participant-observation, holistic perspective, regional expertise, emic view, etic view, and cultural relativism as they pertain to applied anthropology.


5.       Describe the major social and historical factors influencing the development of applied anthropology from the 1930s to the present.


6.       Distinguish among the following areas of responsibility for anthropologists:  to the people studied, to the public, to the discipline, to students, to sponsors, and to their own and the host governments.


7.       Understand the ethical issues involved in applied work and summarize the Statement on Ethics of the American Anthropological Association.




administrator/manager                           needs assessor

advocate                                                          participant-observation

applied anthropology                                        planner

cultural broker                                                  policy researcher

cultural relativism                                              problem-oriented research

emic view                                                         pure anthropology

etic view                                                           regional expertise

evaluator                                                          research analyst

expert witness                                                   trainer

holistic perspective                                            value-free philosophy

impact assessor






Learning Objectives


After reading and studying Chapter 4, you will be able to:


1.       Give a precise definition of theory and explain what issues anthropological theories attempt to address.


2.       Describe the cultural evolutionary theory of Tylor and Morgan, and recognize its limitations and the significance of their distinction between cultural and biological cultures.


3.       Recognize the problems created by both the British and the German diffusion theories and the importance of theory that deals with contact and interaction between cultures.


4.       Understand the significance of Boas' emphasis on the importance of history and ethnographic fieldwork, his contribution to methodological rigor, and his stance against racism and genetic determinism.


5.       Distinguish between the approaches of Malinowski and Radcliffe-Brown to the meaning of function.


6.       Comprehend the concepts of universal functions and functional unity.


7.       Summarize psychological anthropologists’, i.e. Sapir, Benedict, and Margaret Mead, positions on the connection between personality, the individual, and culture.


8.       Distinguish between the neoevolutionary theories of Leslie White and Julian Steward.


9.       Understand the meaning of structure for French structuralist theory and the significance that theory gives to the structure of the human mind. (Levi-Strauss)


10.   Recognize the importance of the linguistic model and the emic view for ethnoscience.


11.   Explain the focus of cultural materialism.


12.   Discuss the importance of self-knowledge, ideas and values for interpretive anthropology.






Learning Objectives


After reading and studying Chapter 5, you will be able to:


1.      Discuss the importance of experiential fieldwork to cultural anthropology.


2.      Understand the less romantic aspects of preparing for and carrying out anthropological fieldwork.


3.      Describe the difference between a generalized ethnography and the more focused, problem oriented research usually conducted in recent decades.


4.      Discuss the five stages of field research as they were carried out in the Kenya Kinship Study.


5.      Recognize the importance of hypotheses, independent variables and dependent variables for research design in anthropology.


6.      Distinguish among the stages of data collection, analysis and interpretation in field research and recognize the significance each has for the others.


7.      Understand the importance, as well as the limitations, of participant-observation in fieldwork.


8.      Evaluate the appropriate use of both structured and unstructured interviews and be able to suggest ways to determine the validity of the data gathered.


9.      Describe anthropologists' use of mapping, document analysis, genealogies and photography in fieldwork and recognize that a variety of types of data allows for cross-checking of information.


10.  Understand the nature of culture shock and appreciate the benefits of biculturalism.




analyzing data                                       Human Relations Area files (HRAF)

attitudinal data                                      independent variable

behavioral data                         informant         

bicultural perspective                            interpreting data           

census                                                  participant-observation

collecting data                                       photography

culture shock                                        proxemic analysis

data analysis                                         research clearance

dependent variable                                research design

document analysis                                 research proposal        

ethnographic mapping                           sociometric tracking     

event analysis genealogy                        structured interview                                          

fieldwork                                              unstructured interview







Learning Objectives


After reading and studying Chapter 6, you will be able to


1.       Discuss the importance of language in human culture, especially as it relates to humans’ ability to adapt to a wide variety of environments.


2.       Define the term language and distinguish between human and nonhuman communication.


3.       Recognize the differences among phonological, morphological, and grammatical structures.


4.       Explain why, that while all languages have distinct grammars, none are superior in an absolute sense to others in expression of abstract ideas.


5.       Recognize that size of and specialization in vocabulary reflects adaptive importance to a culture.


6.       Discuss the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis and the difficulties of testing it.


7.       Explain the power of language to alter people’s perceptions.


8.       Discuss how a language reveals a culture’s basic value structure.


9.       Describe how knowledge of sociolinguistics is important for understanding everyday interactions in society.


10.   Recognize the symbolic role of language in the development of national and ethnic identities.


11.   Explain the importance of non-verbal communication, including hand gestures, posture, and touching, for humans and the possibilities of cross-cultural misunderstanding.




arbitrary nature of language                               language family

bound morphemes                                            morphemes

closed system of communication                        morphology

code switching                                      nonverbal communication                                 

cultural emphasis of a language              open system of communication

diachronic analysis                                            phoneme         

diglossia                                                           phonology       

displacement                                                     Sapir-Whorf hypothesis                       

free morphemes                                                sociolinguistics 

gestures                                                            syntax







Learning Objectives


After reading and studying Chapter 7, you will be able to:


1.         Identify five major food-procurement categories found among the world's populations.


2.         Discuss the impact of a culture's environment and technology on its food acquisition strategies.


3.         Explain the concept of carrying capacity and the consequences of exceeding it, and the theory of optimal foraging.


4.         Describe four characteristics of the hunting and gathering strategy.


5.         Recognize the different degrees of reliability of hunting and gathering strategies and the relative success of groups in environments with stable food supplies.


6.         Understand the cultural changes brought about by the Neolithic Revolution.


7.         Explain the limitations and the advantages of slash and burn cultivation.


8.         Describe the differences between transhumance and nomadic pastoralism.


9.         Understand how the change from horticulture to agriculture allowed the development of peasantry.


10.     Recognize the expenses, as well as the benefits, of industrialized agriculture, especially in terms of environmental impact.




agriculture                                                         optimal foraging theory

carrying capacity                                               pastoralism

food collecting                                      peasantry

horticulture                                                       shifting cultivation

hunting and gathering                                         slash and burn method

industrialization                                     social functions of cattle

Neolithic Revolution                                          swidden cultivation

nomadism                                                         transhumance





Learning Objectives


After reading and studying Chapter 8, you will be able to:


1.  Explain the focus of cross-cultural studies of economics.


2.      Understand the distinct positions of substantivists and formalists.


3.      Recognize there are alternative ways of allocating natural resources other than the principle of private property.


4.      Describe the advantages of community control of resources for hunters and gatherers, pastoralists, and horticulturalists.


5.      Explain the significance of the concepts of production, distribution and consumption for anthropological economics.


6.      Recognize the importance of the study of division of labor, especially in non-industrialized societies.


7.      Explain the universal use of gender and age for allocation of economic tasks.


8.      Distinguish among three types of reciprocity.


9.      Understand the difference between redistribution and market economy.


10.  Explain the differences between the economic roles of big men and chiefs.




allocation of resources                          mechanical solidarity                

balanced reciprocity                                          negative reciprocity

barter                                                               organic solidarity

big men                                                            particularism

bridewealth                                                       potlatch

division of labor                                                production       

economic anthropology                         property rights 

economics                                                        reciprocity

generalized reciprocity                          redistribution

globalization                                                      silent trade

kula ring                                                           standardized currency

labor specialization                                            tribute

market exchange                                               universalism







Learning Objectives


After reading and studying Chapter 9, you will be able to:


1.  Give a cross-culturally valid definition of family.


2.  Give a cross-culturally valid definition of marriage.


3.      Explain three functions of marriage.


4.      Define incest and summarize four theories explaining why the incest taboo is universal.


5.      Explain and give examples of endogamy and exogamy.


6.      Understand the circumstances that foster the practice of polygyny.


7.      Explain the circumstances in which polyandry occurs and the ways in which it is adaptive.


8.      Understand the practice of bridewealth and why it is important to recognize its social, as well as economic, aspects.


9.      Describe how exchange of women as spouses between kin groups and the practice of dowry is related to the status of women in society.


10.  Understand the variety of residence patterns after marriage.


11.  Explain under what circumstances nuclear families are found and why they are not more common in the United States.


12.  Explain under what circumstance extended families are found and in which economies they are most beneficial.


13.  Describe modern-day family structure and its functions.




ambilocal (bilocal) residence                 monogamy

arranged marriage                                 neolocal residence

avunculocal residence                           nuclear family

bride price                                            parallel cousins

bride service                                         patrilocal residence

bridewealth                                           polyandry

cross cousins                                        polygamy

dowry                                                  polygyny

endogamy                                             post partum sex taboo

exogamy                                               preferential cousin marriage

extended family                                     reciprocal exchange

incest taboo                                          role ambiguity

kibbutz                                                 serial monogamy

levirate                                                 sororate

matrilocal residence                              woman exchange



                                                           UNIT TEN




Learning Objectives


After reading and studying Chapter 10, you will be able to:


1.      Explain how the complexity of human social organization differs from that of any other species.


2.      Contrast the importance of kinship as a factor in social structure of small-scale societies with its importance in industrialized societies.


3.      Give a clear definition of kinship.


4.      Recognize the importance of cultural rules for kinship classification that may not account for biological factors.


5.      Describe how sex and age are important in determining kinship relationships.


6.      Explain the structure of both patrilineal and matrilineal descent systems.


7.      Understand the organizational hierarchy of moieties, phratries, clans, and lineages.


8.      Describe the three types of cognatic descent and explain what is a bilateral system’s kindred.


9.      Explain the six basic systems of classification of kin.




affinal relatives              gender                                                  patrilineal descent

ambilineal descent                     Hawaiian system                                   phratries                      

bilateral descent                        horizontal function of kinship                 segmentation                            

clan                                          Iroquois system                                    Sudanese system                     

cognatic descent                       kindred                                     unilineal descent           

collaterality                               kinship                                                  vertical function of kinship

consanguineal relatives  kinship system                                                 

Crow system                            lineages                                                           

descent                                     lineality                                                

double descent                         matriarchy                                                       

ego                                           matrilineal descent                                                        

Eskimo system              moieties

fictive kinship                            Omaha system                                                 







Learning Objectives


After reading and studying Chapter 11, you will be able to:


1.          Explain why anthropologists discuss gender differences rather than sex differences.


2.          Discuss how research on gender in other cultures demonstrates that it is not biology alone that is responsible for differences in women's and men's behavior.


3.          Understand the large variation in human sexuality across culture.


4.          Recognize that the universal presence of gender role definitions does not mean the roles are identical in all societies.


5.          Understand the meaning of sexual stratification and the difficulties involved in its measurement.


6.          Discuss the relative sexual equality in hunting-and-gathering (food collecting) societies and suggest two reasons why that equality exists.


7.          Discuss whether or not women are universally subordinate and the dimensions in which women’s status varies.


8.          Explain what gender ideology is and be able to argue whether those ideologies represent only a male perspective.


9.          Give examples of male gender bias and the impact it has on women in ours and other cultures.


10.      Discuss the controversy about genital mutilation and female infanticide.


11.      Explain when there was a period of breadwinner/housewife households in th U.S. and why that type of household came to prevail and then became less common.


12.      Describe the characteristics of occupational segregation along gender lines in the United States and the impact that has on relations of women and men.





breadwinner                                                     human sexuality

double work load                                             infant mortality

extramarital activity                                           male gender bias

female genital mutilation                         masculinity                   

female infanticide                                              nutritional deprivation

femininity                                                          occupational segregation          

feminization of poverty                          postpartum sexual abstinence

gender                                                              purdah

gender ideology                                                rape

gender roles                                                      sex drive

gender stratification                                           sexual asymmetry

genderlects                                                       sexual dimorphism

heterosexual                                                     spouse abuse

homosexual                                                      universal male dominance

honor killings







Learning Objectives


After reading and studying Chapter 12, you will be able to:


1.      Define social order and political organization.


2.      Identify three dimensions of political organization.


3.      Describe the characteristics of political organization in band societies.


4.      Recognize the significance of pan-tribal associations for tribes and the similarities and differences between tribes and bands.


5.      Understand how the increased social and technological complexity of chiefdoms over bands or tribes is reflected in their political organization.


6.      Define nation and nation-state.


7.      Describe the political organization of state societies and the basis for the authority of the state.


8.      Explain three theories that account for the formation of state societies and recognize that independent cases of state formation might require more than one theory for adequate explanation.


9.      Recognize the great importance of informal means of social control for complex state organizations as well as for bands and tribes.


10.  Understand the great diversity in formal means of social control and the significant difference in the objectives of legal systems in more and less complex societies.



acephalous societies                              oath                              voluntaristic theory state formation        

age grade                                             ordeal                                       warfare            

age organizations                                  pan-tribal mechanism                witchcraft

age set                                                  political coerciveness

ancestor worship                                  political integration

authority                                               positive sanctions

band societies                                       power

chiefdom                                              public opinion

coercive theory of state formation          rebellion                      

corporate lineage                                  revolution

crime                                                    sanctions

degradation ceremonies                        shaman

deviance                                               social control

egalitarian                                             social norm

ghost invocation                                    socialization

ghostly vengeance                                 song duel

intermediaries                                       specialized political roles

law                                                       state system of government

Leopard-skin Chief                               supernatural belief systems

nation                                                   tribal societies 

negative sanction                                  





Learning Objectives


After reading and studying Chapter 13, you will be able to:


1.      Explain three factors involved in social ranking.


2.      Describe the social and economic organization of egalitarian societies.


3.      Understand how access to power and wealth does not correlate with access to prestige in rank societies.


4.      Recognize the range of socio-economic organization that occurs within stratified societies.


5.      Explain the difference between class and caste societies.


6.      Discuss the contradictions between the ideology and the actual experience of social mobility in the United States.


7.      Understand the definitions of race and ethnicity and explain how they are distinct concepts.


8.      Describe the range of ways in which racial and ethnic groups relate to one another.


9.      Discuss the functionalist interpretation of social stratification.


10.  Understand the conflict theorist interpretation of stratification as exploitation by the upper levels of hierarchy.



achieved status                                     nouveau riche

ascribed status                                      pluralism

assimilation                                           population transfer

bourgeoisie                                           power

caste                                                    prestige

class                                                     proletariat

conflict theory                                       race

egalitarian societies                               rank societies

ethnic group                                          social mobility

functional theory                                   stratified societies

genocide                                               varnas

jati                                                        wealth







Learning Objectives


After reading and studying Chapter 14, you will be able to:


1.      Define and critically evaluate the concept of religion.


2.      Explain the focus of anthropological interest in the functions of religion and acknowledge that anthropologists are not interested in proving which religion is the best.


3.      Distinguish between religion and magic.


4.      Explain the difference between sorcery and witchcraft.


5.      Describe what myths are and what they do.


6.      Understand the social and the psychological functions of religion.


7.      Describe the four categories of religious organizations.


8.      Give an example of an individualistic cult.


9.      Explain the difference between shamanistic cults and communal cults.


10.  Evaluate the relationship between ecclesiastical cults and state societies.


11.  Describe how religion can play an important role in transforming a society.


12.  Give examples and describe the functions of revitalization cults.





cargo cults                                                        religious nationalsim                             

communal cults                                                 revitalization movement

ecclesiastical cults                                             rite of passage

economic behavior                                            rite of solidarity

individualistic cults                                             satanists

kinship behavior                                                separatist Christian church

liberation theology                                             shamanistic cults

magic                                                               social functions of religion

mahdist movement                                            sorcery

millenarian movement                                        supernatural beliefs

nativistic movement                                           vision quest

psychological functions of religion                      witchcraft                    

religion                                                             wicca             







Learning Objectives


After reading and studying Chapter 15, you will be able to:


1.       Give a clear definition of art while recognizing that art is integrated into the whole of culture.


2.       Explain why such activities as carving, weaving or telling folktales can be art.


3.       Describe the significance of both process and product for the definition of art.


4.       Understand the forms of art most common in nomadic or semi-nomadic societies and how they differ from those of complex societies.


5.       Recognize the psychological functions of art for the artist as well as for the audience.


6.       Describe the contribution of art to the social integration of a society.


7.       Recognize how distinct the creation of art is across cultures.


8.       Explain the ways in which art can preserve the status quo of a society both symbolically and mechanically.


9.       Understand the importance of culture in determining what a person actually hears in music.


10.   Explain how dance and verbal arts can be integral aspects of socialization.




dance                                 legends                               transformational

ethnomusicology                 liberation theater

folklore                               music

folktales                              myths

graphic arts                         plastic arts

hija                                     primitive art







Learning Objectives


After reading and studying Chapter 16, you will be able to:


1.      Understand how change is essential to all cultures.


2.      Describe the two processes that cause cultures to change internally.


3.      Explain the difference between invention and innovation and recognize the greater impact of the latter.


4.      Recognize that diffusion is a two-way process and understand what is involved in the selection of characteristics that are diffused.


5.      Explain how acculturation is distinct from diffusion.


6.      Describe why change in one part of a culture is likely to bring about changes in other parts.


7.      Give three reasons why a society might resist cultural change.


8.      Give an anthropological definition of modernization.


9.      Describe the process of urbanization.


10.  Understand the variety of processes involved in urban migration.


11.  Describe the stratification of economic development.


12.  Explain the role of multinational corporations in economic development and the process of neocolonialism.




acculturation                                         less-developed countries (LDCs)          urbanization                 

circulation of labor                                linked change                                        voluntary associations

cultural boundary maintenance   marginal people                                    world systems theory

culture of poverty                                  modernization theory

diffusion                                                multinational corporations

innovation                                             neocolonialism

invention                                               occupational duality







Learning Objectives


After reading and studying Chapter 17, you will be able to:


1.       Distinguish between the traditional aim of documenting cultures of isolated people and the contemporary anthropological approach.


2.       Understand why anthropologists argue that the contemporary world is not a melting pot.


3.       Describe anthropological concern with the survival of indigenous peoples.


4.       Explain how anthropologists can validly study complex societies.


5.       Understand what is meant by the term, “culture broker”, and explain what it means to say that “culture brokers” are needed to make anthropological data available to non-anthropologists.




Cultural broker                   human rights                       indigenous peoples